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Indent the first line of structure, paragraphs one half-inch from the left margin. Regents Lens Essay! Formatting Your Paper #8212; Citation Help for APA, 6th Edition 1 Sep 2017 Paragraph Indentation #8212; Paragraphs should be indented 5-7spaces or 1/2 Setting up your Paper in Proper APA Style #8212; this is a video tutorial. . . .
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Text response essay conclusion structure -…
How to Become a New York Army National Guard Warrant Officer. WARRANT OFFICER HISTORY. 1. Text Conclusion! FIRST APPOINTMENT . How To Cite A Dissertation Ed! The first appointment of an American Warrant Officer was within the U.S. Navy on text response December 23, 1775, on the American Ship Andrea Doria. The first Army Warrant Officer was appointed on 7 July 1918, when the Army Warrant Officer Corps was created by an act of Congress. 2. English! DEFINITION . In 1956 the first official definition of text response conclusion structure, a Warrant Officer was published in AR 611-112. Essay On The Poem By Liz Lochhead! The first professional development program for warrant officers was established in text, 1969, with the Warrant Officer Career College at Fort Rucker, Alabama, created.
A Warrant Officer Division, at Headquarters, Department of the how to cite a dissertation ed, Army, was established in text, 1974 to provide personnel management for all warrant officers. 3. ENTRY COURSE. By the 1980s Warrant Officers were an integral part of virtually all branches of the Army, serving in 70 career fields, totaling about 15,000 men and women. Revelation By Liz Lochhead! The first Warrant Officer entry course was established in 1983, at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland for Ordnance. 4. TWOS. By 1984 The Chief of Staff of the Army chartered a study called the Total Warrant Officer Study (TWOS). This was the most definitive study of the Army Warrant Officer and resulted in numerous changes to warrant officer programs. Changes involved accessioning, recruitment, training, promotion, utilization, and separation. 5. WOMA . Legislative recommendations from TWOS were introduced to Congress in 1988 as the Warrant Officer Management Act (WOMA) and became law in response, December of 1988. It ensured that all warrant officer entry courses were standardized.
6. WOLDAP . Based on WOMA, a Warrant Officer Leader Development Action Plan (WOLDAP) was developed and john searle of language, approved by essay, the Chief of Staff of the english essay technologies, Army in 1992. WOLDAP brought many changes to text response essay, include; changes in essay poem revelation, structure, training, clarification and grading of positions, and the creation of the CW5 position. 7. CAREER CENTER . The Total Army Warrant Officer Career Center and the First Warrant Officer Company at Ft. Rucker, Alabama were created and became the centerpiece of the warrant officer education system in October 1992. MINIMUM ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS. 1. AGE: For technical specialties, applicants must be at least 18 and have not attained age 46, on the date of initial appointment. Waivers of the maximum age requirement may be granted by the Chief, National Guard Bureau on a case by case basis. Applicants for conclusion, rated aviator positions must be programmed to begin flight training before attaining age 33. Method Of Research Thesis! Waivers of maximum age for aviator applicants may be approved on a limited basis. In view of the response essay, fact there is a separate procedure for aviation warrant officer candidates a separate fact sheet is provided on diagnosis page 14 for review. It provides an response structure, overview for essay poem revelation by liz lochhead, aviation candidates.
2. CITIZENSHIP : Must be a US citizen by essay conclusion, birth or naturalization. 3. MENTAL APTITUDE : Score 110 or higher on the GT aptitude test. For aviation applicants, applicants must take the Alternate Flight Aptitude Selection Test (AFAST). Minimum passing score is 90. Tests may be scheduled through MNRR, CW3 O'Keefe (518) 272-6353. 4. EDUCATION : High School Graduate or pass the General Education Development (GED) test at the high school level.
5. ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMPETENCY : Must have a demonstrated understanding and proficiency in the English language. Applicants whose native language is other than English must achieve a minimum score of 80 on the English Comprehensive Level Test (ECLT). Proficiency in English cannot be overemphasized. Diagnosis For Retrolisthesis! The only way a candidate can keep up with the administrative requirements is to be competent in the English language, to include reading, and writing. Most WO MOSs require 6 credit hours of college level English. 6. SECURITY CLEARANCE : A valid final or interim secret security clearance is required prior to text response essay conclusion, entry into WOCS (Warrant Officer Candidate School).
Some specialties' require a higher than secret level, (See DA Pamphlet 611-21). 7 . PHYSICAL : Must pass an appointment physical in accordance with Chapter 2, AR 40-501, within two years from date of appointment as a warrant officer, and also meet height and how to ed, weight standards of AR 600-9. See DA Pamphlet 611-21 for additional physical requirements for individual MOSs. 8. Text Response Structure! LEADERSHIP : Must possess outstanding leadership traits. 9. PAY GRADE : Applicants must be at least SGT (E-5) or have attained the grade established by searle an essay in the philosophy, MOS proponents as shown in DA Circular 601-99-1.
Applicants below the grade of essay structure, SGT, will be administratively promoted to pay grade E-5 by revelation by liz lochhead, MNP-OPM upon response essay structure entering WOES in accordance with NGR 600-101, paragraph 2-11c. Former commissioned and warrant officers are eligible for appointment without attending WOCS but must complete the predetermination process to be approved for entry into a warrant officer career. 10. SPECIFIC MOS REQUIREMENTS : Must meet specific MOS requirements of DA Pamphlet 601-6. (See also Appendix F, NYARNG Regulation 611-2). Former commissioned or warrant officers may also be considered based on their prior service qualifications both as enlisted soldiers and as officers. 1. SECURE A VACANCY. To become a Warrant Officer, a soldier must be able to fill an existing or projected unit vacancy in an MOS.
This step is the same for an enlisted soldier, former warrant officer, or commissioned officer. This MOS must be one for which the enlisted soldier has an awarded PMOS, SMOS, or AMOS listed as a feeder MOS (See DA Circular 601-6). If there are no vacancies in the current unit of assignment, qualified soldiers are encouraged to apply for appointment in another unit where vacancies exist, or are projected to how to cite, occur. Former warrant officers should apply for text essay conclusion, an MOS they previously were qualified in, while commissioned officers may apply for the MOS they have the best qualifications for, using both commissioned and former enlisted service. 2. REVIEW PROCESS . John Searle An Essay In The Philosophy Of Language! Unit Commanders of the text response essay conclusion structure, unit where the vacancy exists must conduct an interview with the applicant(s), and if necessary conduct a unit review board to essay, select the text essay conclusion, best applicant and alternates. This process is based on icd 9 code obtaining a soldier with the best technical ability and leadership potential. This is an response essay conclusion, important responsibility, in that the regents critical essay, individual selected must have demonstrated the ability to understand, convey, and execute orders, while serving as a trainer, a teacher, counselor, and team leader. Essay Conclusion Structure! The ability to continue to think and make good decisions under pressure is of particular importance.
For the sake of the on the poem revelation by liz, service and the individual selected this should not be just a reward for service in the unit, it should be a careful, well thought out decision. 3. SELECTION BOARD/MENTOR . The Selection Review board should include, if possible, a warrant officer qualified in MOS for which the applicant is being considered. After the commander makes his/her selection, an officer or warrant officer mentor should be assigned to response essay structure, assist the candidate in preparing the Predetermination Packet covered in the next section. 1. REQUEST. The first step in the qualification process is the requirement for method of research, requesting approval from the Department of the Army MOS proponent for entry into text essay structure, the career field. This is called a request for predetermination. This application is prepared in conjunction with MNRR-OSF, ATTN: CW4 Jacqueline O'Keefe. The request will be prepared utilizing the Predetermination Packet Checklist, NYARNG Form 611-2-11, and the Resume format shown on this web site. The Predetermination Packet Checklist is the first of the three available (all within a single file) in either MS Word or Adobe Acrobat format at the bottom of this page. The predetermination checklist includes.
Soldier's current Company Commander will submit a Letter of Recommendation. For applicants requiring WOCS, the commanders recommendation must include: I certify that (Rank and Name) successfully passed the Army Physical Fitness Test consisting of pushups, sit-ups, and the two mile run with a score of (score) on (date); the verified height is john an essay in the philosophy, (feet and text response essay conclusion, inches) and the verified weight is (pounds). DA Form 2-1, Personnel Qualification Record. Searle An Essay! Certified by Chief, Army Records Branch. Resume in the format enclosed. All related training certificates/DA Form 1059 Transcripts documenting college level training and, specifically, those that are related to the MOS applied for. OERs/NCOERs covering the period of service in the feeder MOS and text essay conclusion structure, leader experience relating to that period of service.
Military Education: Related DA Form 1059, NGB Form 22, ASD, DD Form 214. Civilian Documentation supporting or directly related to the MOS plus performance evaluations, position descriptions, licenses, etc. Awards and Decorations (performance/achievements) DA Form 705, APFT (within 6 months) Recommendation from CW3 to CW5 who holds the MOS, the soldier is searle of language, requesting. DA Form 5500/5501 (Body Fat Worksheet - if applicable) Security Clearance Verification Statement if available. Interim Clearance required prior to WOCS attendance. 2. PROPONENT REVIEW. Once the packet is complete is scanned to the Proponent of that particular MOS. If the packet is disapproved it will be returned through command channels to the requestor for additional documentation. Text Essay Conclusion Structure! If the packet is approved it will be forwarded from the technologies, MOS proponent to text response conclusion, MNRR-OSF. This process takes between 30 and 60 days, depending on the MOS proponent.
If the an essay of language, packet requires an response conclusion structure, NGB waiver then the packet is descriptive thesis, processed thru NGB. This process takes between 60 and response essay conclusion structure, 120 days, depending on english critical outline the MOS proponent. 3. DISPOSITION. Once the Predetermination packet is returned approved, then the essay conclusion, Warrant Officer Screening packet is prepared. This packet, which is the second step in the process, is covered in the next section of this guide. WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATE APPOINTMENT SCREENING. 1. WOCS APPOINTMENT SCREENING. Icd 9 Diagnosis Code For Retrolisthesis! Upon receipt of a favorable predetermination package the applicant must complete an appointment screening packet for response essay, consideration by the Federal Recognition Board held at Joint Forces Headquarters. These boards are held on a monthly basis. The board is conducted by the Senior Army Advisor and selected New York Army National Guard field grade officers. The purpose of this board is to determine eligibility for attendance at the Warrant Officer Candidate School (WOCS) and appointment.
2. WOCS APPPOINTMENT SCREENING PACKET. The Warrant Officer Appointment Screening Checklist, NYARNG 611-2-10, is comprised of. (Checklist is provided at end of this guide) The approved predetermination package. NGB Form 62E, Application for Federal Recognition as an Army National Guard Officer or Warrant Officer and Appointment as a Reserve Commissioned Officer or Warrant Officer of the Army in the Army National Guard of the english essay technologies, United States. Essay! Birth certificate.
Statement in lieu of security clearance. How To Cite A Dissertation Ed! The applicant must have a Secret clearance, or interim clearance. Text Response Essay Structure! A final or interim secret clearance is required for appointment, unless a higher clearance is specified by technologies, the MOS proponent. Copy of a Report of Medical Examination and Report of Medical History for a Chapter 2, AR 40-501 physical, conducted within two years. Flight physicals require Fort Rucker, Alabama flight surgeon approval. Copy of High School Diploma or equivalent, college transcript.
DD Form 214, DD Form 220, or similar documents for prior service. Copy of Social Security Card. Text Structure! Copies of orders relating to method, awards, decorations, and citations. Conclusion Structure! Statement of understanding if unable to complete 20 yrs retirement service. DA Form 705, APFT, within the last 6 months. Of Language! * Written statement from technicians on compatibility, TPR 300. * Aeronautical aviation orders if applicable. * Statement of military service obligation IAW AR 135-91 if applicable. * Conditional release from another component or state transfer order. 3. FEDERAL RECOGNITION BOARD REVIEW . Completed warrant officer screening application will be reviewed by MNRR and conclusion structure, forwarded to MNP-OPM for submission to Federal Recognition Board. Boards are held on a monthly basis with dates announced by the Senior Army Advisor. Packet submission must be submitted 10 days prior to FRB. 4. BOARD RECOMMENDATION . If the board finds the how to ed, applicant qualified, an order appointing him/her as a Warrant Officer Candidate (WOC) is issued and text conclusion, a primary MOS of diagnosis for retrolisthesis, 09W00 is awarded. If the board does not find the applicant qualified the packet will be returned with any additional requirements noted. Packet may then be resubmitted for consideration once requirements have been met.
5. WOCS APPLICATION . After appointment as a WOC, the unit/command will request a class quota at the Warrant Officer Candidate School (WOCS) at response conclusion structure Ft. Rucker, Alabama, or RTI via ATRRS. Each command will ensure that a mentor, preferably a recent WOCS graduate, helps prepare the candidate. 6. Descriptive Method! Former Warrant Officers and Commissioned Officers. Applicants in this category must complete a packet using the Warrant Officer Reappointment/New Appointment Checklist, NYARNG Form 611-2-3, which may be found at text conclusion the end of this guide. MNRR-OSF in conjunction with MNP-OPM will prepare a board package and forwarded it to the federal recognition board for approval. Once approved, and the board package is returned back to MNP-OPM with the completed NGB Form 89 (Federal Recognition Board Report) and an appointment order will be prepared with a package and forwarded to the National Guard Bureau requesting federal recognition.
APPOINTMENT / WOCS ATTENDANCE. WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES (WOC) 1. Each WOC will either attend the Warrant Officer Candidate School (WOCS) at essay on the poem Fort Rucker, Alabama or the RTI based WOCS program. Warrant Officer Candidate School is conducted under the guidance and direction of the structure, Warrant Officer Career Center (WOCC). Descriptive Method! This school is a high stress environment that challenges the soldier both physically and mentally.
2. The objective of this school is to ensure the candidate possess the mental and physical stamina, leadership, communication skills, and the attention to detail to become a Warrant Officer. Text Conclusion! Both the Active and Reserve components must meet the searle an essay of language, same requirements for entry and graduation of this course. There are three options for the completion of WOCS. Technical and Aviation Candidates in the grade of SGT and above, with WLC (Warrior Leadership Course) may complete PHASE I of WOCS via on-line DL Course, and attend the five week WOCS at Fort Rucker, Alabama. Technical and Aviator WOC'S who do not hold the grade of SGT or above, prior to being appointed as a WOC, will attend a straight seven week resident course at essay conclusion Fort Rucker, AL. Descriptive Method! Technical warrant officer candidates in the grade of SGT or above, prior to entrance in text conclusion, the WOCS program, with WLC completed, may attend the WOCS at a participating RTI. 3. APPOINTMENT . The school notifies MNP-OPM of expected graduates approximately two weeks prior to diagnosis code for retrolisthesis, the course end date. A state order is text response essay conclusion structure, published separating the enlisted soldier from the NYARNG and appointing the candidate as a WO1, effective the day of how to cite apa 6th, graduation, and furnished to Fort Rucker. Conclusion! After the successful completion of of research thesis, WOCS the soldier is officially appointed as a WO1 during ceremonies on graduation day.
If the candidate does not graduate the text conclusion structure, order is then revoked. Once official notification of graduation is received by DA Form 1059, six months temporary federal recognition is granted, with permanent federal recognition requested from the National Guard Bureau. It is at this time that the appointment order is forwarded to MNAR-ARB for processing. WARRANT OFFICER BASIC COURSE (WOBC) 1. The final event of becoming a fully qualified warrant officer is the completion of the Warrant Officer Basic Course (WOBC) or Initial Entry Rotary Wing (IERW) for Aviators. WOBC must be successfully completed within two years from the date of appointment as a warrant officer.
This can be extended by NGB on a case by case basis for one additional year when extenuating circumstances exist. 2. The Warrant Officer Basic course trains and icd 9 diagnosis code, certifies newly appointed Warrant Officers who are technically qualified to perform in the assigned MOS. Response Structure! There are three methods for method of research thesis, completion of WOBC: Active Component (AC) course. Soldiers in the AGR program must attend the AC course. The AC courses vary from 5 to 20 weeks depending upon the MOS. Text! b. How To Ed! Reserve Component (RC) configured course. The RC courses are normally shorter AC versions to accommodate reserve components. Most RC courses are shorter resident phases that include correspondence phases. 3. Attendance at the RC or AC version for traditional soldiers and military technicians is text, based on the proponent's determination for each applicant.
If a MOS proponent specifies applicant must attend the AC course then the individual must do so to be MOS certified. No waiver of this requirement is authorized. AVIATION WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATE FLIGHT SCHOOL FACT SHEET. 1. English Critical Lens! GENERAL . The following information is provided concerning individuals who desire to apply for Warrant Officer Candidate (WOC) training in the aviation field. 2. BASIC QUALIFICATIONS.
Applicants must be at least 18, but not have reached 33 years. Age waivers may be granted. Step 1: Each applicant must first contact MNRR-OSF, CW3 O'Keefe to response essay structure, schedule aptitude test for icd 9, aviation (AFAST). The test is administered by a Facility Test Control Officer. A score of essay conclusion, 90 or higher is required. Step 2: Once the FAST requirement has been met, then the applicant is required to essay technologies, schedule a Class IA, Flight Physical, at the closest military medical facility, such as Fort Hamilton, West Point, or Fort Drum.
The phone number and point of response conclusion structure, contact will be provided by CW3 O'Keefe. Step 3: Once the physical has been taken, it is forwarded to the US Army Aeromedical Center, Ft. Rucker, Alabama for review. For those applicants who successfully pass the physical examination, the next step is to coordinate with CW3 O'Keefe to prepare the flight school packet. Step 4: Once the diagnosis code, packet is completed Facility Commanders will conduct Flight Evaluation Board (FEB). Step 5: If approved, the State Aviation Officer will select a position vacancy, notify the individual selected, and text essay, forward the john searle in the philosophy of language, application for essay structure, flight school. Once selected for school, notification will be provided with school attendance orders and administrative instructions issued. 1. NGR 600-101, Warrant Officers - Federal Recognition and Related Personnel Actions, dated 1 October 1996, w/interim change 1. 2. NYARNG Regulation 611-2, The Warrant Officer System, dated 1 December 2001. 3. DA Circular 601-6, Warrant Officer Procurement Program, dated 14 June 2006.
4. DA Pamphlet 611-21, Military Occupational Classification and icd 9 diagnosis code, Structure, dated 31 March 1999. 5. DA Pamphlet 600-11, Warrant Officer Professional Development, 30 December 1996. POINTS OF CONTACT. Mon - Fri, 7:00 - 16:30. Command Chief Warrant Officer. Peekskill: 914-373-1927 ext. 20 Watervliet: 518-272-4001. NYARNG WO Recruiter, MNRR-OSF. Watervliet Arsenal ATTN: MNRR-OSF (CW3 Ruter)
1 Buffington Street. Watervliet, NY 12189-4050. NYARNG WO Recruiter, MNRR-OSF. Watervliet Arsenal ATTN: MNRR-OSF (CW2 PADILLA) 1 Buffington Street. Watervliet, NY 12189-4050. WO Actions Officer, MNP-OPM. HQ NYARNG ATTN: MNP, Building 25. 1 Buffington Street.
Watervliet, NY 12189-4000. All three required checklists identified and described above are available as a single PDF, and can be downloaded here.
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Text Response Essay Structure Introduction
The June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising. The June 16 1976 Uprising that began in Soweto and spread countrywide profoundly changed the socio-political landscape in South Africa. Events that triggered the uprising can be traced back to policies of the Apartheid government that resulted in the introduction of the essay, Bantu Education Act in 1953. The rise of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and the formation of lochhead South African Students Organisation (SASO) raised the political consciousness of many students while others joined the wave of anti-Apartheid sentiment within the student community. When the language of Afrikaans alongside English was made compulsory as a medium of instruction in schools in essay conclusion structure 1974, black students began mobilizing themselves. Essay Technologies! On 16 June 1976 between 3000 and 10 000 students mobilized by structure, the South African Students Movement's Action Committee supported by the BCM marched peacefully to icd 9 code for retrolisthesis demonstrate and structure, protest against the government’s directive. The march was meant to culminate at english regents essay a rally in Orlando Stadium. On their pathway they were met by heavily armed police who fired teargas and later live ammunition on demonstrating students.
This resulted in a widespread revolt that turned into an uprising against the government. While the uprising began in response essay Soweto, it spread across the country and carried on until the following year. The aftermath of the events of June 16 1976 had dire consequences for the Apartheid government. Images of the ed, police firing on peacefully demonstrating students led an international revulsion against South Africa as its brutality was exposed. Text Response Essay Conclusion Structure! Meanwhile, the weakened and exiled liberation movements received new recruits fleeing political persecution at home giving impetus to the struggle against Apartheid. The word ‘Bantu’ in an essay philosophy the term Bantu education is response conclusion highly charged politically and has derogatory connotations. The Bantu Educational system was designed to ‘train and fit’ Africans for their role in the newly (1948) evolving apartheid society. Education was viewed as a part of the method of research, overall apartheid system including ‘homelands’, urban restrictions, pass laws and job reservation. This role was one of labourer, worker, and essay structure, servant only.
As H.F Verwoerd, the architect of the Bantu Education Act (1953), conceived it: “There is no place for [the African] in the European community above the code, level of certain forms of labour. It is of no avail for him to receive a training which has as its aim, absorption in text response structure the European community” Pre-apartheid education of cite ed Africans. It is mistaken however, to understand that there was no pre-apartheid educational marginalization of black South Africans. Essay Conclusion! Long before the historic 1948 white elections that gave the Nationalist Party power, there was a system of segregated and unequal education in the country. Icd 9 Code For Retrolisthesis! While white schooling was free, compulsory and expanding, black education was sorely neglected. Financial underprovision and an urban influx led to text conclusion gravely insufficient schooling facilities, teachers and educational materials as well as student absenteeism or non-enrolment. A 1936 Inquiry identified problems, only to have almost nothing done about these needs.
Bantu education and on the revelation by liz lochhead, the racist compartmentalizing of text essay structure education. In 1949 the cite a dissertation ed, government appointed the text response conclusion, Eiselen Commission with the task of considering African education provision. The Commission recommended 'resorting to radical measures' for the 'effective reform of the english essay, Bantu school system'. In 1953, prior to conclusion structure the apartheid government's Bantu Education Act, 90% of black South African schools were state-aided mission schools. The Act demanded that all such schools register with the state, and removed control of African education from the diagnosis for retrolisthesis, churches and provincial authorities.
This control was centralized in the Bantu Education Department, a body dedicated to keeping it separate and inferior. Almost all the mission schools closed down. The Roman Catholic Church was largely alone in its attempt to keep its schools going without state aid. The 1953 Act also separated the financing of education for Africans from general state spending and conclusion structure, linked it to direct tax paid by Africans themselves, with the result that far less was spent on black children than on white children. In 1954--5 black teachers and students protested against Bantu Education. The African Education Movement was formed to provide alternative education. For a few years, cultural clubs operated as informal schools, but by 1960 they had closed down.
The Extension of University Education Act, Act 45 of 1959, put an end to black students attending white universities (mainly the universities of Cape Town and Witwatersrand). How To Cite Apa 6th! Separating tertiary institutions according to race, this Act set up separate 'tribal colleges' for black university students. Text Response Conclusion Structure! The so-called 'bush' Universities such as Fort Hare, Vista, Venda, Western Cape were formed. Blacks could no longer freely attend white universities. Again, there were strong protests. Expenditure on in the of language Bantu Education increased from the late 1960s, once the text structure, apartheid Nationalist government saw the need for a trained African labour force. Diagnosis! Through this, more African children attended school than under the old missionary system of education, albeit grossly deprived of facilities in comparison with the education of other races, especially whites.
Nationally, pupil:teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. Overcrowded classrooms were used on a rota basis. There was also a lack of teachers, and response essay, many of those who did teach were underqualified. In 1961, only 10 per cent of black teachers held a matriculation certificate [last year of high school]. Black education was essentially retrogressing, with teachers being less qualified than their students. The Coloured Person's Education Act of 1963 put control of essay outline 'coloured' education under the Department of Coloured Affairs. 'Coloured' schools also had to be registered with the government. 'Coloured' education was made compulsory, but was now effectively separated from white schooling. The 1965 Indian Education Act was passed to separate and control Indian education, which was placed under the Department of Indian Affairs. In 1976, the SAIC took over text essay conclusion structure certain educational functions.
Indian education was also made compulsory. Because of the government's 'homelands' policy, no new high schools were built in Soweto between 1962 and 1971 -- students were meant to move to their relevant homeland to attend the newly built schools there. Then in method 1972 the government gave in to pressure from business to improve the Bantu Education system to meet business's need for a better trained black workforce. 40 new schools were built in essay Soweto. Between 1972 and 1976 the number of pupils at how to cite apa 6th ed secondary schools increased from 12,656 to 34,656. One in five Soweto children were attending secondary school. Oppression through inferior education and the 1976 Soweto uprising. An increase in response essay conclusion structure secondary school attendance had a significant effect on youth culture. Previously, many young people spent the time between leaving primary school and english regents critical lens essay, obtaining a job (if they were lucky) in gangs, which generally lacked any political consciousness. But now secondary school students were developing their own. Text! In 1969 the black South African Student Organization (SASO) was formed.
Though Bantu Education was designed to method deprive Africans and isolate them from 'subversive' ideas, indignation at response being given such 'gutter' education became a major focus for resistance, most notably in the 1976 Soweto uprising. In the wake of ed this effective and clear protest, some reform attempts were made, but it was a case of too little, too late. Major disparities in racially separate education provision continued into the 1990s. When high-school students in Soweto started protesting for better education on 16 June 1976, police responded with teargas and live bullets. It is commemorated today by a South African national holiday, Youth day, which honors all the young people who lost their lives in the struggle against Apartheid and Bantu Education.
In the 1980s very little education at all took place in the Bantu Education system, which was the target of almost continuous protest. The legacy of decades of inferior education (underdevelopment, poor self-image, economic depression, unemployment, crime, etc.) has lasted far beyond the conclusion, introduction of a single educational system in 1994 with the first democratic elections, and the creation of the Government of National Unity. Presumably, not all students of the earlier generation 'worshipped the school authorities'! The first, recorded stoppages of lessons, (always called strikes in how to cite a dissertation apa 6th the South African newspapers), and the first riots in African schools occurred in 1920. In February, students at the Kilnerton training centre went on response essay conclusion structure a hunger strike 'for more food'. Of Research! read on. The school students in Cape Town reacted to essay conclusion structure the news they heard of events in Soweto. Critical Essay! A teacher at one of the Coloured schools was later to write: 'We haven't done much by way of teaching since the Soweto riots first began. Kids were restless, tense and confused. 'There is no similar record of what the African children thought, but it is known that they were aware of the extra police patrols that were set up in the townships following June 16. After the first shootings in Cape Town, a teacher at one of the schools recounted. read on. Throughout the 1960's black students campaigned for the right to affiliate to the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) and just as steadfastly, the move was vetoed by the campus authorities. NUSAS was also keen to welcome the conclusion structure, colleges into their fold.
Not only would this make it the largest student organisation in the country, but it would also bring into descriptive method thesis the liberal ''old all student opponents of the text response structure, government's apartheid policy. read on. Countdown to conflict: The main cause of the protests that started in African schools in the Transvaal at the beginning of 1975 was a directive from the Bantu Education Department that Afrikaans had to be used on john searle an essay in the of language an equal basis with English as one of the languages of instruction in response conclusion structure the department's secondary schools. read on. The introduction of Afrikaans alongside English as a medium of a dissertation apa 6th ed instruction is considered the immediate cause of the text response conclusion, Soweto uprising, but there are a various factors behind the 1976 student unrest. These factors can certainly be traced back to english technologies the Bantu Education Act introduced by the Apartheid government in 1953. The Act introduced a new Department of Bantu Education which was integrated into essay structure the Department of Native Affairs under Dr Hendrik F. Verwoerd. The provisions of the Bantu Education Act and some policy statements made by the Bantu Education Department were directly responsible for the uprisings. Dr Verwoerd, who engineered the Bantu Education Act, announced that “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an early age that equality with Europeans (whites) is not for them”.
Although the Bantu Education Act made it easier for lens essay more children to attend school in essay structure Soweto than it had been with the missionary system of education, there was a great deal of method of research thesis discontent about the lack of facilities. Throughout the country there was a dire shortage of classrooms for Black children. There was also a lack of text essay conclusion structure teachers and many of the teachers were under-qualified. Essay! Nationally, pupil-to-teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. Because of the lack of proper classrooms and the crippling government homeland policy, students were forced to return to “their homelands” to attend the newly built schools there. The government was spending far more on White education than on Black education; R644 was spent annually for each White student, while only R42 was budgeted for a Black school child. In 1976 there were 257 505 pupils enrolled in Form 1 at high schools which had a capacity for only 38 000 students.
To alleviate the situation pupils who had passed their standard six examinations were requested to repeat the conclusion structure, standard. This was met with great resentment by icd 9 code for retrolisthesis, the students and their parents. Although the situation did not lead to an immediate revolt, it certainly served to build up tensions prior to the 1976 student uprising. In 1975 the government was phasing out Standard Eight (or Junior Certificate (JC)). By then, Standard Six had already been phased out and text response essay structure, many students graduating from Primary Schools were being sent to the emerging Junior Secondary Schools. Diagnosis Code! It was in these Junior Secondary schools that the 50-50 language rule was to be applied. The issue that caused massive discontent and made resentment boil over into the 1976 uprising was a decree issued by the Bantu Education Department.
Deputy Minister Andries Treurnicht sent instructions to the School Boards, inspectors and principals to the effect that Afrikaans should be put on text response essay structure an equal basis with English as a medium of instruction in all schools. These instructions drew immediate negative reaction from various quarters of the lens, community. The first body to react was the Tswana School Boards, which comprised school boards from Meadowlands, Dobsonville and other areas in Soweto. The minutes of the essay structure, meeting of the Tswana School Board held on 20 January 1976 read: The circuit inspector told the board that the Secretary for Bantu Education has stated that all direct taxes paid by the Black population of South Africa are being sent to the various homelands for educational purposes there. In urban areas the education of a Black child is being paid for by the searle an essay in the of language, White population, that is English and text response essay conclusion structure, Afrikaans speaking groups. How To! Therefore the Secretary for Bantu Education has the responsibility of satisfying the English and Afrikaans-speaking people. Response! Consequently, as the essay, only way of satisfying both groups, the medium of instruction in all schools shall be on a 50-50 basis.
In future, if schools teach through a medium not prescribed by the department for a particular subject, examination question papers will only be set in the medium with no option of the other language. Teachers also raised objections to the government announcement. Text Conclusion! Some Black teachers, who were members of the African Teachers Association of South Africa, complained that they were not fluent in Afrikaans. The students initially organised themselves into local cultural groups and method thesis, youth clubs. Text Structure! At school there was a significant number of branches of the Students Christian Movements (SCMs), which were largely apolitical in character.
SASM penetrated these formations between 1974 and 1976. Code For Retrolisthesis! And when conditions ripened for the outbreak of protests, SASM formed an Action Committee on 13 June 1976, which was later renamed the Soweto Student Representative Council (SSRC). They were conscientised and influenced by national organisations such as the Black Peoples' Convention (BPC), South African Student Organisations (SASO)and by text essay, the Black Consciousness philosophy. They rejected the idea of being taught in essay on the poem the language of the oppressor. The uprising took place at a time when liberation movements were banned throughout the country and essay structure, South Africa was in the grip of apartheid.
The protest started off peacefully in Soweto but it turned violent when the police opened fire on unarmed students. By the third day the unrest had gained momentum and spread to townships around Soweto and other parts of the country. The class of 1976 bravely took to the streets and overturned the whole notion that workers were the searle philosophy of language, only essential force to challenge the apartheid regime. Indeed, they succeeded where their parents had failed. They not only occupied city centres but also closed schools and text response essay, alcohol outlets.
June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising. The introduction of Afrikaans alongside English as a medium of instruction is considered the immediate cause of the Soweto uprising, but there are a various factors behind the 1976 student unrest. These factors can certainly be traced back to the Bantu Education Act introduced by the Apartheid government in 1953. The Act introduced a new Department of Bantu Education which was integrated into the Department of Native Affairs under Dr Hendrik F. Verwoerd. The provisions of the Bantu Education Act and some policy statements made by the Bantu Education Department were directly responsible for the uprisings. Dr Verwoerd, who engineered the Bantu Education Act, announced that “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an regents essay outline, early age that equality with Europeans (whites) is not for text response essay conclusion them”. Although the Bantu Education Act made it easier for more children to attend school in Soweto than it had been with the missionary system of education, there was a great deal of diagnosis code for retrolisthesis discontent about the lack of facilities. Text Response Essay Conclusion! Throughout the country there was a dire shortage of classrooms for english regents critical essay outline Black children. There was also a lack of essay teachers and many of the essay technologies, teachers were under-qualified. Nationally, pupil-to-teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to response structure 58:1 in 1967.
Because of the lack of proper classrooms and the crippling government homeland policy, students were forced to return to “their homelands” to attend the newly built schools there. The government was spending far more on ed White education than on Black education; R644 was spent annually for each White student, while only R42 was budgeted for a Black school child. In 1976 there were 257 505 pupils enrolled in Form 1 at high schools which had a capacity for text response conclusion only 38 000 students. To alleviate the situation pupils who had passed their standard six examinations were requested to repeat the standard. This was met with great resentment by the students and their parents. Although the situation did not lead to an immediate revolt, it certainly served to build up tensions prior to the 1976 student uprising. In 1975 the government was phasing out Standard Eight (or Junior Certificate (JC)).
By then, Standard Six had already been phased out and many students graduating from Primary Schools were being sent to the emerging Junior Secondary Schools. It was in these Junior Secondary schools that the 50-50 language rule was to be applied. The issue that caused massive discontent and descriptive method of research, made resentment boil over into the 1976 uprising was a decree issued by the Bantu Education Department. Text Response Essay! Deputy Minister Andries Treurnicht sent instructions to the School Boards, inspectors and principals to the effect that Afrikaans should be put on essay technologies an equal basis with English as a medium of instruction in all schools. These instructions drew immediate negative reaction from various quarters of the community. Response Structure! The first body to react was the Tswana School Boards, which comprised school boards from Meadowlands, Dobsonville and other areas in Soweto. The minutes of the meeting of the Tswana School Board held on 20 January 1976 read: The circuit inspector told the cite a dissertation, board that the Secretary for Bantu Education has stated that all direct taxes paid by the Black population of South Africa are being sent to the various homelands for educational purposes there. In urban areas the education of a Black child is being paid for by the White population, that is English and Afrikaans speaking groups.
Therefore the Secretary for Bantu Education has the responsibility of satisfying the English and Afrikaans-speaking people. Consequently, as the only way of satisfying both groups, the medium of instruction in all schools shall be on response essay conclusion a 50-50 basis. In future, if schools teach through a medium not prescribed by the department for a particular subject, examination question papers will only be set in the medium with no option of the other language. Teachers also raised objections to the government announcement. Some Black teachers, who were members of the African Teachers Association of South Africa, complained that they were not fluent in Afrikaans.
The students initially organised themselves into local cultural groups and youth clubs. At school there was a significant number of for retrolisthesis branches of the Students Christian Movements (SCMs), which were largely apolitical in character. SASM penetrated these formations between 1974 and 1976. And when conditions ripened for the outbreak of protests, SASM formed an Action Committee on 13 June 1976, which was later renamed the essay conclusion, Soweto Student Representative Council (SSRC). They were conscientised and descriptive method thesis, influenced by national organisations such as the Black Peoples' Convention (BPC), South African Student Organisations (SASO)and by the Black Consciousness philosophy. Response Essay Conclusion! They rejected the idea of being taught in the language of the oppressor. The uprising took place at a time when liberation movements were banned throughout the lens essay, country and South Africa was in the grip of apartheid. The protest started off peacefully in text response conclusion Soweto but it turned violent when the police opened fire on unarmed students.
By the third day the unrest had gained momentum and spread to townships around Soweto and other parts of the country. The class of 1976 bravely took to the streets and overturned the whole notion that workers were the only essential force to challenge the apartheid regime. Indeed, they succeeded where their parents had failed. English Critical Lens Essay! They not only occupied city centres but also closed schools and alcohol outlets. It is hard to text conclusion get a clear picture of what exactly happened on the day of June 16th. Most of the diagnosis, information comes from response essay conclusion structure eyewitness accounts of students who participated, journalists who were on the scene, as well as the descriptive method, police reports on the events. As with all history, a lot depends on the perspective of the person telling the story as well as those who have subsequently written about it. Some accounts directly contradict each other. Text Essay Conclusion! We are not endeavouring to write an objective account but are providing a platform for people to tell their own stories which we hope will form an accurate portrayal of events.
Please send us an e-mail us and tell us if any of the information is factually incorrect. Not all the children who were to participate in the march on June 16 knew about it on the morning of the code, 16th. For many it was an ordinary school day. But, by this time, students were feeling very frustrated and dissatisfied with the Bantu education system in text general and the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction. On The Poem By Liz! It was exam time for the senior students and many were scared that they would fail the exams if they would have to write in Afrikaans. Nonetheless the march that was planned by the Action Committee of the Soweto Students Representative Council (SSRC) was well organised and was to be conducted in a peaceful way. The leaders of the original march, mainly came from two high schools, Naledi High in Naledi and Morris Isaacson in Mofolo. Sfiso Ndlovo argues, however, that the main centre of organisational activity was Phefeni Junior Secondary, close to Vilakazi Street in response conclusion Orlando.
Phefeni was certainly close to the railway station from which many students got off their trains to join the march. The plan was that students from Naledi High were to march from their direction and pick up students from the schools on their way. The Morris Isaacson students were to march from english their school doing the same until they met at a central point where they would proceed peacefully together to the Orlando Stadium. Other schools also were part of the original plan but it is not clear that the students at all those schools were fully aware of the march. The first students to gather together were at Naledi High. The mood was high spirited and jovial. At assembly the principal gave support to the children and wished them good luck. Response Conclusion Structure! The first chairperson of the Action Committee, Tepello Motopanyane addressed them and informed them that discipline and a peaceful march were to be the order of the day. Meanwhile, at Morris Isaacson students also gathered. They were also addressed by one of the leaders of the icd 9 code, Action Committee, Tsietsi Mashinini, and then set out.
On the text response essay, way they passed by other schools, where some were waiting and those who were not were recruited on the spot to join. We were singing and it was jovial, the lens essay outline, mood, exciting and with the placards we started going. - Dan Moyane Morris Isaacson High School. The first time we heard of it was during our short break. Text Essay! Our leaders informed the principal that students from apa 6th ed Morris Isaacson were marching. We then joined one of the groups and text response structure, marched. - Sam Khosa Ibhongo secondary School.
In the end there were 11 columns of students marching to Orlando Stadium to meet at the central point of Uncle Toms Municipal hall. Before this point, there had been some minor skirmishes with police but it was here that police stopped them, barricading their path. Other schools had been stopped by the police earlier on and had dispersed but managed to join later. Icd 9 Code For Retrolisthesis! It is hard to determine how many students there were, estimates range from 1 000 to 10 000. The march was halted and some people helped Tietsi Mashinini climb up onto a tractor so that everyone could see him when he addressed the crowd: Brothers and Sisters, I appeal to you-keep calm and conclusion, cool. We have just received a report that the cite apa 6th, police are coming. Don't taunt them, don't do anything to them. Be cool and essay conclusion structure, calm. We are not fighting.
It was a tense moment for both the police and the students. Police reports stated that the situation was explosive and they retreated to await further reinforcements. The students carried on marching until they got to method of research thesis what is text essay conclusion structure now Hector Petersen Square, close to Orlando High School. The march came to how to cite a dissertation ed a halt again. Different reports of what actually started the shooting have been put forward. Despite the text structure, tense atmosphere the students remained calm and well ordered. Suddenly a white policeman lobbed a teargas canister into the front of the crowd.
People ran out of the smoke dazed and critical outline, coughing. The crowd retreated slightly but remained facing the police, waving placards and singing. A white policeman drew his revolver. Black journalists standing by text response conclusion, the police heard a shot: Look at him. He's going to shoot at the kids. Method! A single shot ran out. There was a split seconds silence and pandemonium broke out. Children screamed. More shots were fired. Essay Structure! At least four students fell and others ran screaming in all directions.
Brooks Brickhill Whirlwind before the storm, 1980. After the first massacre, the students fled in different directions. Anger at the senseless killings inspired retaliatory action. West Rand Administrative Buildings (WRAB) vehicles and english, buildings were set alight and burned to the ground, a white WRAB official was pulled out of his car and beaten to death, bottlestores were burned and looted. Other encounters with the police occurred where more students were killed especially in the vicinity of the Regina Mhundi church in Orlando and the Esso garage in Chiawelo.
As students were stopped by response essay, the police in one area they moved their protest action to cite apa 6th ed others. By the end of the day most of Soweto, including Diepkloof, which was relatively quiet during the morning, had felt the impact of the protest. For the students at some schools, this was the first they heard or saw. Schools were closed early at about 12:00 and text essay, many students walked out of school to a township on fire. It was past twelve, past twelve to one. Sister Joseph allowed us to go home, because now it was chaos around. So when we went home we could see that now cars were burning, especially the company cars, those from town, those owned by whites. As more students were let out of school they joined those protesters that were closest to them. Some accounts see the events of the afternoon to be chaos or a free for all especially on the basis that bottlestores and beerhalls were raided and looted. The apartheid press certainly tried to portray it that way. It was clear that the english critical lens outline, events of the afternoon were not organised and an atmosphere of text response essay panic and defiance existed.
However, others argue that the students attacked targets for political reasons and on the by liz, were disciplined in who and what they attacked. A white university student who was sympathetic was actually taken to essay safety by the schoolchildren themselves. It was overwhelmingly, WRAB structures and cars that were razed. One black owned business was attacked, the shop of Richard Maponya but this was deliberate. Maponya was a wealthy businessman who was despised by most people because he exploits us and is a sell out. There probably was an element of free for all in english technologies the looting of bottlestores.
Many students came home with booze and a lot of people enjoyed the results of the essay conclusion, plunder. But people had long seen alcohol as a method used by the apartheid government to try and make black people apathetic. Icd 9 Diagnosis For Retrolisthesis! Most of the beerhalls were built by the municipality. People were shouting less liquor, better education. There were probably different motivations at text response conclusion play in the raids of the bottlestores. In any political protest there are those that are more politically motivated and descriptive, disciplined than others, to see it as one or the other is to text response misunderstand the nature of political mass action. Fires continued blazing into the night. At 21:00 Armoured Police cars later known as Hippos started moving into Soweto.
Official figures were that 23 people had been killed, but some reports estimated that it was at least 200. It is hard to on the poem revelation lochhead know how many people had been killed because of police efforts to text response conclusion structure cover up the number of people who died. The second day. was marked by an essay of language, uncontrollable fury and burning hostility. Police also assumed another attitude. They shot at random, and at anyone who would raise a fist and shout Power, into their face. Many others joined the original protesters. Text Response Essay Structure! Not everyone had heard about Hector Petersen and the others who were killed yet, but the word was spreading. The following day I pick up stones. English Lens Essay! I joined the essay structure, struggle. On the 16th I just came home and stay. Method! because we formed the slogan an injury to one is an injury to all So we were supposed to text response essay conclusion structure be there. - Solomon Marikele Rhulane Senior Primary.
The heavily biased Cilliers Report for this day sums up the events. Schools, trains, buses, delivery vehicles, West Rand Administrative Buildings (WRAB) buildings, cars of business people, all were targeted. The fury and frustration that had been simmering amongst township youth had free reign. There was enormous police presence on the morning of the 17th 1500 police armed with sten guns, automatic rifles, and hand machine carbines had taken up strategic positions in the township. Helicopters flew overhead.
The army was on standby. The police force had never developed other methods of crowd control other than the use of live bullets. Diagnosis! The police shot at people indiscriminately and casualties were even higher than the text response essay conclusion structure, day before. The violent reaction of the police only made the children angrier. At a press conference Mr. Manie Mulder announced that nearly all the WRAB buildings in Soweto had been destroyed.
This amounted to 21 offices being burnt down, 10 being plundered, 3 schools burnt as well as unknown numbers of municipal halls, beerhalls, bottlestores. The Rand had lost value overnight. Thousands of workers had refused to go to code for retrolisthesis work. It was indeed a crisis for the Apartheid government. It was also a serious loss of face in light of US Secretary of State, Henry Kissingers impending visit to South Africa. Demonstartion during Henry Kissinger's visit. Kiss- inja (a dog) Soweto, September, 1976. To add to this, 300 predominantly white Wits students marched through the text essay structure, city centre to protest the killing of schoolchildren. As they marched through the streets they were joined by many black workers.
At this point the method thesis, political leadership of the Soweto Students Representative Council (SSRC), SASM and other organisations were desperately trying to take leadership of the protest and to channel the anger of the youth and to give the movement political direction. Conclusion Structure! The ANC in exile called for immediate international action and philosophy of language, the intensification of economic sanctions. The protest action also spread to other townships around Soweto. In Thembisa, students organised a solidarity march, which, although heavily guarded did not result in violence. In Kagiso, police tried to stop a gathering of students and adults; the result was a forced retreat and the destruction of WRAB buildings, vehicles and text response essay conclusion, schools. When the police returned with reinforcements, they shot indiscriminately into the crowd, killing at least five people. On the third day of the Uprising 18th June, the english essay, situation in Soweto was still volatile.
Outside butchery in response structure Moroka there were some fatalities. Fires were blazing in many Soweto townships, like Zola, Ikwezi, Moletsane, Naledi and diagnosis code for retrolisthesis, Tladi. Administrative buildings, wine stores and beer halls, which were hated by the young people, were also set on fire. Buses and cars running through Soweto were burned. Police intensified their terror in text response conclusion structure trying to icd 9 diagnosis for retrolisthesis return the situation to normality in response essay structure the township. However this angered the insurgents young people and brought them up against heavily armed police. They used stones to method counter armoured police cars, helicopters and guns. Response Structure! At about 10 a.m the chairman of the West Rand Administrative Board (WRAB) Manie Mulder was in Soweto to icd 9 diagnosis code for retrolisthesis asses the situation. He was escorted by a large police vans. All the WRAB owned cars that had escaped being burned were taken out of Soweto after Mulder's visit.
The columns of cars drove past Orlando police station into the direction of Johannesburg. But in general the text essay conclusion structure, action on this day had already moved to the East and West Rand and Alexandra townships as well as other parts of the country. The people in other parts of the country were not revolting to pledge their solidarity with the people of john an essay in the philosophy Soweto. They shared the same problem, the same sorrows and the same causes of resentment and rebellion. A general stawaway was organised in Alexandra Township and text conclusion, four people were killed when the police opened fire on marching residents. The government, which for the first time publicly addressed the issue, and regents outline, justified the text response essay conclusion structure, harsh measures taken by the police.
There were some reports of students seizing weapons from police and using them to shoot back. June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising casualties. Response to john searle an essay the June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising by text response conclusion structure, organisations in exile. June 16 marks the commemoration of National Youth Day in South Africa. This is the on the by liz lochhead, day the country reflects on the massacre of school children during the Soweto Uprising of text response essay conclusion 1976. Descriptive Of Research! The response of the organisations in exile can be understood in the context of the events that took place on the day. Conclusion! The students had organised a peaceful march against the Afrikaans Medium Decree, issued in 1974, which made it mandatory for Black schools to use the Afrikaans language as the medium of instruction in by liz Mathematics, Social Sciences and Geography at the secondary school level. Punt Janson, the Deputy Minister of then Bantu Education, was quoted as saying: “I have not consulted the African people on the language issue and I’m not going to. An African might find that ‘the big boss’ spoke only Afrikaans or spoke only text essay conclusion, English.
It would be to his advantage to know both languages.” The policy was deeply unpopular since Afrikaans was regarded by some as the language of the oppressor. It was against this background that on 30 April 1976, students from the Orlando West Junior School in Soweto went on strike and boycotted classes. By 16 June, their rebellion spread to english regents essay outline other schools in Soweto. Conclusion! Incidentally, the student-organised mass rally on this date turned violent, as the police responded with bullets to stones thrown by the angry students. Many students were shot.
The official death toll was 23, but it could have been higher than 200 because the incident triggered widespread violence throughout South Africa, which claimed more lives. The first student to be shot on that fateful day was 15-year old Hastings Ndlovu. However, the killing in the same incident of Hector Pieterson, aged 12, and in particular the publication of his photograph taken by Sam Nzima, made him an international icon of the uprising. It became the major rallying point of the struggle against apartheid. Military Response: Camps in exile.
The incident triggered widespread violence not only in Soweto but also throughout South Africa. For the diagnosis code for retrolisthesis, political organisations in exile, notably, the conclusion structure, African National Congress(ANC) and searle an essay of language, Pan Africanist Congress(PAC), the Soweto unrest in June 1976 provided a golden opportunity both for recruitment and military training of young men and women. Many Black people felt in danger of being arrested by the police and further underground activities were launched as a result of this threat. Discreet recruitment operations culminated in many incensed students taking up arms against the government, and text response essay conclusion, being sent for diagnosis for retrolisthesis military training. Text Essay Conclusion Structure! Hence the mushrooming of military camps such as Mkhumbane in Temeke (Tanzania) outside the country, under the command and icd 9, mentorship of Ntate Mashego and the Engineering camp in Angola. Recruits were advised on how to unlawfully cross the border(s) into Botswana, Swaziland, Angola, Mozambique and Tanzania, where they received military training. It is essential to note that the text response conclusion structure, accession to power of the Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo) in Mozambique and the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in essay revelation by liz lochhead Angola in 1975, together with the text response conclusion structure, exodus of thousands of young people in the months following the regents critical essay, Soweto uprising, created favourable conditions for the resumption of sabotage activity in text response conclusion South Africa, especially after the collapse of the descriptive, ANC/Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU) joint operation (i.e.the Wankie Campaign).
These developments were followed by the infiltration of trained fighters back into South Africa, bombings of white installations and the subsequent arrest and essay, trials of anti-apartheid activists. Clearly, an issue that gave rise to a vast number of trials under security legislation was the descriptive of research, massive recruitment of people and response essay conclusion, their transportation out of South Africa. While there is certainly some indication that this was already on the increase prior to June 1976, the revolts of 1976 gave an enormous boost to the activity of organisations recruiting members for military training. Technologies! This is especially so in the case of the ANC, but there is also some evidence that PAC activity had been revitalised to some extent. As a result, there were many South Africans in ANC and PAC training camps. The period also witnessed a large number of trials against recruitment for military training. Those who were brought to trial for this offence seemed to reach a peak in text response essay 1977 and the first part of 1978. Many trained guerrilla fighters returned to South Africa, often wielding a large quantity of arms, explosives and ammunition. This group included the Black school children who fled or were recruited in the wake of the June 1976 rebellion. Their activities gave rise to a number of trials as exemplified by the case of Petrus Bushy Molefe, aged 22, who underwent training in East Germany, and was charged for sabotage and terrorism under the essay, Sabotage and Terrorism Acts of June 1962 and June 1967 respectively.
Related to this was the large quantity of arms and ammunition found by police in their attempts to uncover guerrillas in response conclusion structure the urban areas and in clashes in the rural areas. Descriptive Method Of Research! It is important to note that most of the arms caches that were uncovered comprised weapons originating from the then Soviet Union, and the Eastern bloc countries, which suggests that the West was not prepared to lend similar support to the Southern African liberation movements. On 30 November 1976 a group of armed guerrillas clashed with the text response, South African Police near Bordergate, on the Swaziland/South African border. A hand grenade was detonated by one of the guerrillas, injuring two policemen, and allowing the insurgents to escape. Shortly before this incident a railway line near Dikgale, in the Pietersburg district, was damaged in a successful sabotage attempt. Essay On The! From December 1976, in response essay conclusion a series of raids covering Johannesburg, Soweto, Alexandra, Rustenburg, Odi, Nebo, Pietersburg and Sekhukhuniland, security police detained a number of ANC activists. Towards the middle of 1977 twelve accused activists, who included Mosima Gabriel “Tokyo” Sexwale, were charged under the Terrorism Act in the famous trial of the “Pretoria 12”. They were mainly accused of being members or active supporters of essay technologies certain unlawful organisations in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique, Russia and China such as the ANC, the South African Communist Party(SACP) and text response essay structure, Umkhonto we Sizwe(MK).
They were also alternately charged with endangering, in various ways, the thesis, maintenance of law and order in South Africa; undergoing military and other training; possession of text essay conclusion explosives, ammunition, firearms and weapons; harbouring and descriptive method of research thesis, rendering assistance to guerrillas; as well as taking part in the activities of a banned organisation. On the whole, they were accused of text response conclusion structure conspiring to overthrow the white government and were all convicted on the main count of sedition. Thus, the response of the political organisations operating in exile was one that was premised on mobilisation, recruitment of people and english technologies, the organisation of the armed phase of the struggle from text response conclusion structure outside in order to english essay topple the apartheid government. Clearly, the events of the Soweto revolt and the response from the liberation movement in exile are not isolated developments. They have their roots in the spirit of response structure resistance to the growing crisis of apartheid. The collective resistance to oppression and exploitation in South Africa also fundamentally underpins the relationship that was forged between internal and external forms of cite a dissertation organisation after this incident. It led to conclusion major transformations in the strategies of the various exiled liberation movements more in on the accordance with the essay, changing conditions in the country. A militant approach, that found expression in the recruitment and subsequent training of the cadres in neighbouring as well as some European and Asian countries, was emphasised.
References to Youth and the National Liberation Struggle 1894-1994. Brits, J. P. (1995). The Concise Dictionary of Historical and Political Terms , London: Penguin. Christie, P. (1991). English! The Right to Learn: The Struggle for Education in South Africa , Johannesburg: Sached Trust/Ravan Press. Cross, M. (1992). Resistance and Transformation: Education Culture and Reconstruction in South Africa , Johannesburg: Skotaville. Howcroft, P. unpublished South African Encyclopaedia papers. Kallaway, P. Text Essay Structure! (ed) (1984).
Apartheid and Education: The Education of Black South Africans , Johannesburg: Ravan Press. Saunders, C. Southey, N. (1998). A Dictionary of South African History , Cape Town: David Philip. This article was produced for South African History Online on 21-May-2013.
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Text Response Essay Structure Introduction
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Introduction to extended text response structure &…
essay style texts How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry?
P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and text response conclusion structure enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to icd 9 code discover that writing an essay is essay structure, never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and english technologies likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about!
It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an response structure English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on cite a dissertation apa 6th ed that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. Text Structure. But what your teacher or examiner wants is icd 9 diagnosis code for retrolisthesis, a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question.
This is text essay structure, a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . English. There is response essay, no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on english critical essay you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an text response essay structure explanation (E) of descriptive method how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Text Response Conclusion Structure. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of descriptive method of research readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of text essay conclusion structure useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an descriptive method of research example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and response structure Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the thesis characters of Mercutio and text response essay structure Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the cite a dissertation apa 6th heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on text conclusion to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about how to apa 6th opinions, not facts.
This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of text essay conclusion course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the an essay in the of language text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in conclusion this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is essay on the poem lochhead, because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the text essay essay becomes much more straightforward and for retrolisthesis far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay.
As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the text response conclusion structure aspects of the john searle an essay philosophy text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and text response conclusion its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in code for retrolisthesis a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the text essay conclusion structure essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and how to apa 6th ed wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Response Conclusion Structure. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . Searle An Essay Philosophy Of Language. If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in text response essay these body paragraphs.
This is english regents critical essay outline, where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and conclusion relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to english technologies the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the response conclusion text itself what made you think that way.' In the essay technologies written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an text response essay structure analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the john searle in the text for aspects and text response essay conclusion quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points.
Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by descriptive of research an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. Text Essay Structure. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the english lens outline context of the essay question and response essay the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the regents outline creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an text response conclusion effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to john searle philosophy create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the conclusion reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1!
Begin all of thesis your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on text structure the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and english regents essay waffle! What if your essay title isn't in response the form of poem revelation lochhead a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is structure, easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of how to apa 6th ed a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of essay structure points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in descriptive method thesis the opening paragraph, which itself is text conclusion, your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the english critical lens essay paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the text structure play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in regents critical lens some part of Act 2, and text conclusion so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the cite a dissertation apa 6th text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Essay. Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question.
Here are some examples of how to cite a dissertation apa 6th use embedded quotations. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and text response structure Men': 'Small and essay on the revelation by liz lochhead quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and response essay conclusion structure 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is english critical lens essay, a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in response essay conclusion structure any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation.
T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based. Essay On The Revelation Lochhead. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. Response. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher.
There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to an essay philosophy create an text essay initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to on the poem lochhead try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure.
Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for text response essay conclusion structure your point of cite apa 6th ed view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an essay conclusion idea you developed based on an interpretation of descriptive method of research whatever aspect of the response conclusion text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at for retrolisthesis different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text conclusion text that will be at the heart of the english regents lens essay outline essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text response text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to descriptive of research the essay question: that is, to response essay explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to how to a dissertation your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Response Essay Conclusion Structure. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in searle an essay in the of language the body of the essay.
This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the response conclusion structure questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of technologies course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for text response structure this kind of english essay background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and structure interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and method literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text essay text to introduce the context.
TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Poem Revelation By Liz Lochhead. Saying that Shakespeare is response essay conclusion, 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is icd 9 diagnosis, 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to text response expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in icd 9 code your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and response conclusion structure provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. English. or P.Q.C.
For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the essay language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the how to cite ed writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the essay conclusion text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the how to ed themes, messages or purposes of the essay conclusion text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on cite apa 6th the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of text essay conclusion P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from descriptive method of research thesis a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and response essay conclusion a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E).
5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at diagnosis code for retrolisthesis the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the response conclusion structure end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the john searle an essay in the of language writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and response conclusion structure loses marks! 6. Revelation. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and text response logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument.
2. Revelation By Liz Lochhead. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to response essay structure be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to john searle keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to response essay introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake:
In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of icd 9 diagnosis what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY.
FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the text response essay conclusion structure fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the lens highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the response essay structure importance of form to icd 9 code a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the text response essay conclusion form - of your writing. Essay Technologies. This, albeit subtly, affects the essay structure way the a dissertation ed writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example).
The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the text inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of john searle an essay in the form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by text response essay conclusion placing it at apa 6th the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of text essay conclusion structure form by using layout and method appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of text conclusion structure sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on.
A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on icd 9 diagnosis the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of essay structure a text.
Every word and english essay phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the response essay structure author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is how to a dissertation apa 6th, a way of text response essay 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of code for retrolisthesis meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the response structure darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of lochhead meaning. Text Response Conclusion. Sarcasm is cite a dissertation apa 6th, irony, but this is a spoken form of text response essay conclusion irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them.
It's a crude, easy kind of descriptive method of research irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of conclusion structure language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is regents lens essay outline, probably true to say that irony is one of the response essay structure most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. Searle An Essay Philosophy Of Language. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of response essay structure meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of english technologies voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to text response structure be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for searle an essay in the philosophy of language his watch. Structure is the text way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of english technologies writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to text response essay conclusion comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'.
Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of john searle an essay philosophy their own that is text response, quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is descriptive of research, sometimes referred to structure as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the john in the of language stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on response essay the form and method thesis content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS.
Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to response conclusion write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the essay revelation by liz lochhead texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in essay this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of how to cite a dissertation apa 6th each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in text essay which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on essay on the poem revelation to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the essay second text, you must compare and contrast it with the english critical essay outline first. 2) Alternatively, and text structure this makes the essay on the poem by liz lochhead most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about structure both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.
This second method is the on the poem by liz more complex and sophisticated of the two.
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Response Essay - Definition, Structure, Topics, Ideas &…
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at essay structure, this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to english essay, receive an A on conclusion structure my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is icd 9 diagnosis, short for response essay conclusion structure, Extended Essay, and English A1 is the how to apa 6th ed, subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article).
I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in text essay structure, this paper. An Essay Philosophy? Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of essay structure your essay), a table of contents, the descriptive of research thesis, 4,000-word essay (which will range from text conclusion structure 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an john searle an essay philosophy experiment would), and a bibliography. Text Conclusion Structure? Your completed Extended Essay is diagnosis, then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in response structure, Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about method of research thesis, anything, so long as the IBO approves it.
However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is a range of text response essay conclusion structure sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the how to cite a dissertation, options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay.
Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. Response Conclusion? I really encourage anyone who pursues an poem revelation by liz IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. Text Conclusion? I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for john an essay in the, the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by text essay structure, figuring out which classes you enjoy the on the poem lochhead, most and why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to essay conclusion, problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts?
Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about regents essay, that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about?
I recommend spending an hour on this type of text response conclusion brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. Descriptive Method Of Research? You need to text response essay, write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on it . You can’t write about john philosophy of language, WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to write about what type of response essay structure soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the john searle philosophy, conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and response essay conclusion structure, failures. Lens Essay Outline? This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in text essay conclusion, my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre.
Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. How To Apa 6th? tend to be in response structure, the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and explain the significance of the comparison. The key here is of research thesis, that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to text essay structure, get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. English Technologies? If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors:
Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of response who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and cite, we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. Text Essay Conclusion? White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and searle an essay philosophy, she liked me. Text Essay Structure? She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms.
White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in diagnosis code, writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is text response conclusion, passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. Essay Poem Revelation? There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing.
Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. Text? IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on cite a dissertation ed students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of text essay feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity. Searle An Essay In The? Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you.
Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to essay conclusion, the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. English Essay Technologies? The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essay’s argument and essay conclusion structure, will also hurt the on the poem, grading of text essay structure your EE. The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay.
It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of for retrolisthesis Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in essay, a week and get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on english regents critical lens essay your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year.
Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to text response structure, come up with a topic, when you need to technologies, meet with your advisor and essay conclusion structure, when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is searle an essay philosophy, my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember):
January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at response structure, least top 3). February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to how to, pick an EE advisor). April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and conclusion structure, a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to english, your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over text response essay conclusion, the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the english essay technologies, fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to say into 4000 articulate words the text response conclusion structure, first time. Try to get this first draft into in the philosophy of language, the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to essay conclusion structure, work on too many revisions during the how to cite apa 6th ed, school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc.
August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and text essay conclusion structure, receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. Method Of Research Thesis? If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. Response Essay Conclusion Structure? September/October of icd 9 code Senior Year: Submit second draft of conclusion EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Icd 9 Diagnosis Code For Retrolisthesis? Work on response conclusion structure creating the best possible final draft.
November-February of english essay technologies Senior Year: Submit two copies of response essay conclusion your final draft to a dissertation, your school to be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the essay, worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to poem by liz lochhead, 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is conclusion structure, converted into a grade from A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma?
The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to how to apa 6th ed, determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. Text Structure? To learn about critical lens, Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). So, let’s say you get an text response A on your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Code? Note: this chart is response structure, slightly outdated.
Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of knowledge and still be awarded a diploma. However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an john searle in the IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by essay, 160 points or your ACT score by icd 9 diagnosis, 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for structure, free now:
Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to english essay technologies, test prep success. Text Response Essay Structure? She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of Southern California.
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