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Dog’s today are referred as man’s best friend because they are loyal, faithful. Affection , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1574 Words | 4 Pages. access Google+, review account settings, and view or adjust settings for web history). We’ve also sent you an ap literature board email to show you how to get even more out of . Google Do you have a true best friend ? I sure do. Dana is truly my best friend . Romiette Thesis! We met in first grade, we started to play together and we became good friends . Dana has brown eyes and prompts college light brown hair. She is reflective essay on the scarlet letter very smart and her grades high,. She loves sports and good running,She always helps when needed (when I had help with homework, she helped.
Affection , Brown hair , Friendship 842 Words | 3 Pages. A Best Friend is. “Some people come into prompts, our lives and in china quickly go. Some stay for a while and leave footprints on our . hearts. And we are never ever the college, same” (Unknown). What is a “ best friend ”? Almost everyone has one, and almost everyone is essays one. There’s something about a best friend that cannot be duplicated. Everyone has their own definition of what their own best friend is essay board like and what an impact he or she has made in and julio thesis, their life.
In this essay I would like to take a better. 2007 singles , Best Friends , Emotion 1066 Words | 3 Pages. “Isipin mo na lang best friend mo ko.” This is the text message I received from ap literature prompts college her which started it all. These words gave me the . privilege to curious the nighttime questions call Mikee “bes” and have her as my one and true best friend . Best friends are the best when it comes to ap literature prompts college being an inspiration for improving oneself for the better. This is what Mikee made me realize. Although we’ve just been best friends for quite a short time, she already influenced me with her unique attitudes and characteristics. With A Pearl Earring Ideas! She’s one of the main.
Dance , Friendship 954 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay What do you think with your best friend’s appearance, personality and the feeling you have they to be . your friend ? In my opinion, “ Friend ” is ap literature prompts really important for me. I can live without computer and TV but I can’t live without ” friend ” the person who is sharing my mood with me whenever I’m happy or sad and I found “her” my really best friend who has nice appearance , good personality and I’m very happy that I can be friend with her. My best friend is an essay Glydelle N. Carbon dioxide , Feeling , Friendship 1294 Words | 4 Pages. ? Best Friends It was my second year back at college Kildonan East Colligate. My best . friend Sydney and I walked in the small gym doors. My cheeks we’re rosy red because it was starting to getting get cold outside.
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His name is incident of the Isaac Mendoza, and I am very lucky to ap literature essay prompts have him as the person who I share my life with. Why? We have known each other since we were six years old. He has been my best friend since then and romiette thesis we literally know everything there is to know about each other, the good things and essay prompts college board also the unfortunate bad things. So that whole “dating your best friend ” is not.
High school 1563 Words | 4 Pages. got. Don’t cry over anyone who won't cry over you. Good friends are hard to and julio thesis find, harder to essay prompts leave, and impossible to forget. You can . only curious dog in essays questions go as far as you push. Actions speak louder than words. The hardest thing to do is watch the one you love, love somebody else. Don’t let the past hold you back, you're missing the good stuff. Ap Literature Essay College! Life’s short. If you don't look around once in essays in china, a while you might miss it.
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Friendship , Greatest hits albums , Interpersonal relationship 1155 Words | 3 Pages. ? My best friend Maria I’ve decided to reflective on the write about one of the persons who I know the best . This is a . person that I admire for better and worse. That happens to ap literature prompts board be my very best friend Maria Elena. Maria and I go way back! We already became friends in kindergarten. Our mothers also started talking and on imperialism in china that made it even easier for us to be friends . I remember when people asked me if I had siblings, and I would always answer: “YES! I have a little sister”, because that’s what she is to me. We trust. English-language films , High school , Human skin color 431 Words | 1 Pages.
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Woman’s best friend . On The Of Property! 44% of Americans own a dog. I have owned three dogs in college board, my lifetime; three in which I no . Essays In China! longer own. Some say a dog is a man’s best friend , but to me, a dog is a woman’s best friend too. A dog is not just a friend though; it is part of the family. I have loved all of ap literature college, my dogs the same, but differently.
Each one of the dogs that I have owned had their very own special personality. Each dog meant something different to me; I had my first dog (Sammy), my best friend (Daisy). Dog , Dog health , Dogs 929 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast My Two Best Friends Are Like Twins. My Two Best Friends are like Twins Many people in the world have two best friends . Scarlet! . Some of board, them are so similar that it's shocking. Curious Incident Of The The Nighttime Essays! They find some similarities in ap literature prompts, their attitude, personality or even interests. Essays On Imperialism In China! People may find similarities or differences in their best friends and some may not find any interests at all. But, I have found three similarities in ap literature essay college board, my best friends Stacy and Priscilla. Both of with earring essay, my best friends are smart, caring, and funny.
My friend Stacy and Priscilla are. 2008 singles , Certified Nursing Assistant , Difference 459 Words | 3 Pages. We may be able to have a hundred or a thousand friends , or even more. But there is only one friend who really has loyalty on you . Ap Literature Prompts Board! if you really think about it, that is best friend . My best friend is my best partner for thesis, living my life. Ap Literature Prompts! His name is Sugeng Gunawan, and I used to essays divorced call him Sugeng. Essay! He is someone who really knows me deeply. In China! He knows the characteristic of board, me, from the outside and on the of property even inside of me. Someone who is able to feel my mood.
He knows when I feel happy and when I feel very sad. He. 2006 albums , Aerosmith , De La Soul 824 Words | 4 Pages. broadcast their show on, and each show has a different showrunner. One of the ap literature essay prompts board, most popular television shows in history, Friends , is a great . television show to with a pearl earring ideas study the economic situation of a show, and how the economics of the ap literature essay prompts college board, show have affected the on imperialism in china, television industry. In this essay I will explore the economic situation of Friends , and how it was a financially successful show.
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I was never popular in school and girl with earring didn’t have a lot of friends growing up. Chewy was my best friend and cheered up me whenever I felt down. His warm fuzzy coat always made the hairs on my arms. Best Friends , Burt Reynolds , Emotion 1818 Words | 4 Pages. ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed final drafts are due on essay prompts college . _______________________ at an essay on the the beginning of the college board, period. Your graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio. Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Use one of the “hooks” from the six choices on side 2. Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends , relationships, house, and vehicle). Girl A Pearl Earring Essay Ideas! Paragraph. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. choose your major?
3. If you redo college again, what would you major in? 4. What course did you like the most? 5. What course did you like the least? 6. . How will your performance in your worst class affect your performance. 7. How would your best friend describe you? 8. How would your professor describe you? 9. Ap Literature Essay Prompts Board! How would your mother describe you?
10. Curious Dog In The Nighttime Essays Questions! Why are you applying for a job that you didn’t major in? 11. During college, how did you spend your summer vacations? 12. What did you learn.
2006 singles , Computer science , High school 1570 Words | 6 Pages. DEATH OF A BEST FRIEND The school hall was quiet. Everyone was silent with their heads bowed down. No one spoke,laughed, giggled . or chatted. Ap Literature Essay Prompts College Board! There was just sorrow in the atmosphere. Few students could be heard sobbing while the rest just sat stone dead in their seats. What had happened?
What was the on the scarlet letter, cause of this sad and eerie situation? Why did she do it? She had always been that cheerful bubbly girl that everyone loved. Her wide flashing smile could brighten up anyone’s day. Ap Literature Essay Board! My thoughts were disrupted.
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16 Free Medical Assistant Resume Templates. There is an increasing demand for ap literature prompts college board medical assistants in the coming years due to a pearl ideas aging of the population and advances in essay prompts college, medical technology. On Imperialism In China! According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the medial assisting field is expected to grow by over 30% between the years 2010 and essay college 2020. Medical assistants are an important part of the healthcare industry as they provide much needed support within healthcare facilities. Essays In China! A medical assistant#8217;s main responsibility is to provide patients with clinical and prompts college administrative assistance . Essays Questions! They are employed in essay, medical offices, clinics, and hospitals, and work closely with physicians and specialists. Their job duties often vary depending upon where they are employed.
In some offices, the medical assistant is in charge of the management and administration of the office, which allows the physician#8217;s time to reflective scarlet letter be spent on providing better patient care. Other times, their responsibilities rest solely on providing patient care. Individuals who choose medical assisting as a career have a lot of responsibility and can expect to earn an average salary of between $23,000 and $31,000 per year . College! Although there is NO requirement for essays MA to have formal training, all employers will have different educational requirements and you might be expected to ap literature essay prompts college board have at least 1-2 years of formal training at a technical or vocational school or hold an associate#8217;s degree. There are several different types of medical assistants . Girl With Earring Essay Ideas! The first type is the ap literature college board, clinical medical assistant . A clinical medical assistant#8217;s primary responsibility is patient care, carrying out assessments, and essays getting divorced performing other medical tasks. The second type of medical assistant is the prompts college board, administrative medical assistant. The administrative medical assistant primarily performs administrative duties such as managing patient records, scheduling appointments, answering phones, performing general account billing, and maintaining the romiette thesis, front desk area. The final type of medical assistant is one who has chosen to specialize in essay prompts board, a specific field of medicine . Specialty areas could be family medicine, geriatrics, internal medicine, OB/GYN, pediatrics, oncology, transplantation surgery, cardiology, urology, women#8217;s health, endocrinology, or another field. Size: Downloads: 9508 Download: zip and docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3354. This is a general resume that is suitable for a Certified Medical Assistant or a Registered Medical Assistant. For the most part, writing a Medical Assistant Resume is the same as writing resume for any other job.
Your resume should accurately display your knowledge and commitment to on the restoration the field as well as your desire for employment within the field. It should show your professional potential as well as your passion and commitment to quality care. Include any relevant clinical experience you have as well as experience in specialized areas, if applicable. Maintaining a generalized approach is appropriate if you don#8217;t have any specialty experience. Describe responsibilities you had, duties you performed, and success you achieved at your previous positions. What is included in your resume will vary depending upon what types of positions you plan to apply for. Make sure you only include duties that are relevant to essay position you are applying for. Some duties typically found on Medical Assistant resumes: Answer office phones and schedule appointments Greet patients and and julio prepare them for examinations Obtain patient medical history and vital signs Assist physician during patient examinations Perform routine laboratory tests and administer injections Explain treatment procedures, medications, special diets, or doctor#8217;s instructions Perform electrocardiograms or other diagnostic tests Authorize drug refills and provide prescription information to pharmacies Assist with insurance, coding, and billing paperwork. Good communications skills, empathy, and people skills . Prompts! These skills are important to romiette and julio thesis help put patients at ease, as well as answer questions about medications, instructions, and tests. Analytical skills . It is essential to understand information on medical charts such as diagnoses, as well as being able to code patients#8217; medical records for billing purposes, if required. Detail oriented and prompts board technical skills . Medical assistants use basic clinical instruments and need to be accurate when taking and recording patients#8217; vital signs.
If you hold any certifications, licenses, etc., they should be incorporated into your resume to girl with a pearl earring essay ideas show your dedication to furthering your vocational skills. Here is essay prompts college just one sample Medical Assistant Resume with objective, summary of skills, work experience, and on the restoration of property education. As previously noted, the type of resume required for ap literature essay prompts medical assisting will depend upon what type of skills you#8217;ve acquired as well as what type of environment you plan to pursue employment in. A professional resume should be tailored to getting divorced portray who you are, what skills you possess, and essay college board be geared towards the type of job you#8217;re looking for . Here we#8217;ve helped to create examples of just how to achieve the perfect resume to fit your needs. You will find three resume formats: chronological (focus on work history), functional (focus on skills and qualifications), or combination (both work history and skills). Whether you are a recent graduate, or someone who has experience as a medical assistant, you will be able to find one that will highlight your positive attributes and get you started on searching for the career you#8217;ve been looking for. This resume is suitable for someone who has some experience working as a Medical Assistant and has different clinical and administrative skills. Size: Downloads: 7167 Filename: Experienced-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3348.
Chronological Medical Assistant Resume. Chronological resume for someone who is experienced at working as a medical assistant; focus on experience, performed duties, and curious of the questions job skills. Essay Prompts College! Size: Downloads: 2304 Filename: Chronological-Medical-Assistant-Resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3340. Experienced Pediatric Medical Assistant. This is an example of a resume to be used for someone who has experience as a Pediatric Medical Assistant. An Essay Restoration Of Property! Size: Downloads: 2424 Filename: Experienced-Pediatric-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3350. This resume sample provides a generic template which can be used for an entry level medical assistant, or for ap literature essay college board a certified or registered medical assistant. Size: Downloads: 4625 Filename: Entry-Level-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3344. Scarlet! This is a basic resume that can be used for anyone seeking employment as a medical assistant.
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This is an example of a functional resume for thesis use when looking for a first-time job in the medical assisting field. It focuses on skills and qualifications rather than on work experience. Size: Downloads: 3419 Filename: Functional-Resume-for-medical-assisting-field.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3352. Generic Combination Medical Assistant. This resume can be used whether it’s your first or next medical assistant job. It highlights skills and prompts experience. Size: Downloads: 2205 Filename: Generic-Combination-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3356. In China! This resume contains a summary of qualifications and is suitable for any medical assistant with some experience. Size: Downloads: 1986 Filename: Generic-Medical-Assistant-Sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3358.
This resume can be used for a student medical assistant who has not worked in the field yet. It focuses on externships and volunteer experience in place of work experience. Size: Downloads: 2357 Filename: Student-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3366. Essay Prompts! Sample resume for Medical Assistant Intern with example of curious essays qualifications, objective, related skills, education, and employment history. Size: Downloads: 1642 Filename: Medical-Assistant-Intern.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3360. This is a resume for an experienced Certified Medical Assistant who has experience as Medical Assisting Extern and ap literature essay prompts college board Emergency Room Technician Extern. Size: Downloads: 1532 Filename: Medical-Assisting-Extern.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3362. Romiette! This resume is for Medical Assistant experienced in ap literature essay board, working with pediatric patients, solid Clinical and Administrative skills.
Size: Downloads: 1957 Filename: Pediatric-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3364. CMA with experience in with a pearl earring essay, a multi-physician family medical practice and additional healthcare experience as an RPT. Size: 148 KB Downloads: 2331 Filename: Certified-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2015-08-11 21:02:00 / 8222. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.
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Essay on Rural Development in India. Read this essay to learn about Rural Development in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Ap Literature College Board. Introduction to Rural Development 2. Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development 3. The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Romiette Thesis. Observations and Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on essay board, the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development in India Essay on the Observations and essays on imperialism, Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India. 1. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development: The definition of Rural is residuary become all over essay prompts college, the world that is defined as an urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural. In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc.
(ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an reflective essay on the scarlet, area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and college, settlement pattern. ‘Development’ in romiette and julio general refers to the process of a general improvement in levels of essay college board living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and with a pearl earring essay, the capacity to prompts board sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the thesis, potential for future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in essay board a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by divorced, the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. Essay Prompts. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to reflective essay letter equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the college board, economic and social life of dog in the nighttime a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor. It involves extending the benefits of ap literature prompts college development to on the of property the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.” Rural Development means a strategy to essay board improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in reflective scarlet letter the overall spectrum of development and ap literature board, growth.
It is on parents getting divorced not only important to raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the ap literature prompts, poor and weaker sections share the essays getting, benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the interaction of essay prompts college economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors. These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of essay scarlet letter improving the quality of life of the people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and essay prompts, economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the curious, poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and essay prompts college board, human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.
Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for girl essay ideas, the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in the building up of institutions as well as functioning of prompts college these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to and julio time, priority and nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and ap literature essay prompts board, is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the essays, failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s. Academics, nationals and prompts college board, international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of girl with a pearl earring ideas economic development of the present day developed countries. The growth of output and productivity in these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in earlier periods.
Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of ap literature college board growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in reflective on the scarlet the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of essay prompts college board both capital and labour in pursuit of curious incident dog in higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of essay prompts board time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from not only rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in reflective long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and ap literature essay prompts, industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of essays higher wages and ap literature college board, better employment opportunities. The role of the an essay restoration of property, State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century.
Traditionally the essay prompts college board, Government’s activities could be divided into incident the nighttime essays three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of State activity. Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is essay college board one of the reflective, very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of ap literature essay prompts board infrastructure.
In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of curious of the the nighttime essays questions infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an important role in prompts development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in their declarations and and julio thesis, documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to prompts relate to the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in some regions of a number of on imperialism developing countries the plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and prompts board, small retailers has not been improved significantly.
In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. Early in the century their exist the British rule. In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in curious incident of the the nighttime questions the governmental orchestra. The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development: Programmes and essay board, Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore.
The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. The principle of thesis ‘Self Help’ was maintained. The project became the centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in ap literature college board 1920.
This village development programme called as the “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the incident of the the nighttime questions, whole life and the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the ap literature prompts board, attainment of higher standard of living.
(v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on curious incident dog in the nighttime, the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities. The supply of food for prompts college board, all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of “Village Swaraj” by brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and other improvements of village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to girl a pearl earring essay make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the ap literature essay prompts college, various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. Girl Earring Essay. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period:
Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and ap literature essay, cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the and julio thesis, World. The project also exhibited the essay college, exemplary Cooperation and essay, Coordination of Government, volunteers and ap literature essay college, others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947.
The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to work for girl with a pearl ideas, living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to ap literature prompts college this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the one-way traffic of and julio labour, material, skill and ap literature essay, culture from villages to town. The township was intended to include institutions for an essay on the restoration, medical relief and ap literature essay prompts college board, sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the on imperialism, National Plan for essay prompts, Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. India adopted both the centralised and decentralised planning models in the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages. In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to with a pearl implement this ideology the ap literature, Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa.
The State planning machinery followed the objectives and guidelines fixed by reflective essay on the letter, Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of essay prompts sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to achieve industrialization, which was assumed to on imperialism in china be the basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and college, small industries with the aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme.
In this respect the, need for reflective essay on the letter, viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the ap literature essay prompts board, country. As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in curious incident questions Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Ap Literature Essay Prompts College Board. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.
The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and and julio, Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for prompts college, improvement in and julio thesis the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to the children, for ap literature prompts, their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society.
In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and on the of property, ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the ap literature essay prompts board, important rural development programmes. These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period.
The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on on imperialism in china, the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the prompts college board, Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and. (ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in on imperialism rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.
IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of ap literature essay college rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of with a pearl earring essay village communities, districts and blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and ap literature essay prompts college board, adoption of advanced technologies. The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the essays in china, Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. Ap Literature Essay Prompts College. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period.
The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the romiette and julio thesis, infrastructure. Ap Literature Essay Board. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to romiette and julio thesis boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the new and ap literature college, culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the romiette, rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of ap literature essay prompts college board poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications.
These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on essays, the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by essay college board, Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999. In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to on the restoration Minimum Needs approach to rural development.
The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for ap literature essay prompts, rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of romiette and julio development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance. (4) An active policy for ap literature essay prompts college board, social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies. These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the scarlet, programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on ap literature essay prompts, some of the important rural development programme will throw light in getting divorced this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India:
India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in essay board the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by the rural and traditional economic sectors. The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the essays on parents divorced, common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. Ap Literature Essay College. It is romiette thesis proper to essay prompts college board mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development.
Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the with a pearl essay, states and essay prompts board, Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on reflective essay on the scarlet, the secondary data available. As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of ap literature prompts college board rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the an essay on the of property, R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.
The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in ap literature college the said plan. The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in reflective letter the first plan. In this context, the college board, mobilisation of people’s participation is incident of the the nighttime essays questions essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952. A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy.
(ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at ap literature essay prompts, will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Community Development Programme is to of property create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to show the ap literature prompts college board, way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help. On Parents. This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary.
The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the principle of cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in ap literature essay college the forms of of the dog in the nighttime questions village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of ap literature essay voluntary contribution from the people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the dog in essays questions, balance expenditure in a block.
The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme. The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the ap literature essay prompts college, total number of blocks to curious incident of the dog in essays 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).
During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. Board. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III. An Essay Restoration Of Property. Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on ap literature prompts college board, irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and romiette, communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of ap literature essay community development blocks covering the length and breadth of the thesis, country, thus enabling the government to reach the ap literature essay prompts board, rural population in almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of powers and functions for implementing the on the scarlet, programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to assess the essay college, impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.
It is observed that the whole programme suffered from essay on the lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into prompts college board a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in romiette and julio thesis understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the prompts college, ‘food’ to the rural poor. It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.
(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the an essay on the of property, Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into college action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and girl with a pearl essay, intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of essay natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats.
(d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the criteria into an essay on the restoration consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of ap literature essay prompts college Rabi Crops in 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the incident the nighttime essays questions, district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and essay college, water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for essays getting, the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State. Ap Literature Essay College. The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for essays on parents getting, successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”.
The Government of ap literature prompts college board India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at least 20 per cent to girl with a pearl ideas 25 per cent of the essay prompts, cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of reflective essay on the scarlet import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of main crops in ap literature essay college board selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors – physical, social and essays, institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an ap literature prompts college, impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of essays in china 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of essay board 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the curious of the dog in the nighttime essays, period of Fourth Five Year Plan an essay board, additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132.
The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. An Essay On The. The programme paved the ap literature prompts, way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of an essay on the High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP): The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the ap literature essay prompts college board, kharif seasons of romiette 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the essay college board, economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71.
The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and curious incident of the essays questions, evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of essay college new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the romiette and julio, right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to ap literature undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to curious dog in essays questions relax the usual terms and conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an essay college, investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the girl with essay, resources and the adaptability to embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in ap literature the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop. The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA):
The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in divorced following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of essay prompts board support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and romiette and julio thesis, requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and ap literature essay board, so on. It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in girl with a pearl essay certain selected districts.” The important functions of the ap literature college, Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of small farmers and endeavour to incident of the the nighttime see that the provision of various services and supplies to small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to ap literature essay college secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and reflective essay scarlet, extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and ap literature college board, production activities to be undertaken by romiette, the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to prompts college board the income of the small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of reflective on the scarlet short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan.
However, the scheme actually started functioning on essay prompts, a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act. The scheme was financed by essays getting, the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for ap literature board, any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in a pearl earring essay three districts. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of essay prompts college a number of divorced initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Orissa stand second in utilisation of loans in all-India basis after Kerala.
The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. Ap Literature Essay. The total loans mobilised stood at earring ideas, Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs. Ap Literature Essay Prompts College Board. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):
The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to essay assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by essay college board, undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries.
The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Girl With A Pearl Essay Ideas. Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on the capital investments and essay board, inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of dog in the nighttime essays questions Cuttack and ap literature essay, Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and on the, 8 thousand Farmers respectively. A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76.
Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and prompts college, benefitted under the programme. On The. Among them about 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of prompts board drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme.
The strategy of this programme was to improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the concentration of reflective on the letter weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the ap literature prompts college, Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of India.
The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in reflective essay on the scarlet Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against the anticipated expenditure of ap literature college Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. Romiette Thesis. The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and college, 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores.
The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs. The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme. And Julio. The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to ap literature college Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World.
Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of concentration, majority of them is and julio found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in essay board the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the on imperialism in china, tribal population. It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at the National or at the State level.
The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to ap literature essay planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Romiette. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the college, tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. Of Property. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent.
(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and ap literature prompts board, Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and programmes at ITDA level and and julio, review and monitor the prompts, developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is girl with a pearl essay headed by essay college board, a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws. There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of girl with essay that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages.
They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about essay prompts, 2 thousand families. Incident Dog In Essays Questions. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per cent of the total outlay of the college, State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the on parents divorced, order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about prompts college board, 34 families.
The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to Rs 466 crores. Further more the with a pearl essay, plan expenditure under the essay board, programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in in china the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to ap literature essay prompts board promote with special care the educational and essay scarlet letter, economic interest of the essay college board, weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and on parents getting divorced, Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from ap literature prompts college board social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The approach for development of restoration of property Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by ap literature essay prompts college board, the first Prime Minister of girl with a pearl earring essay ideas India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies.
The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is essay prompts board more than 50 per girl essay ideas cent, and prompts board, they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the reflective, Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per board cent tribal concentration. The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. There is a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members.
This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas. The number of in china pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period. In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and essay college, 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme.
The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and essays getting, Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and ap literature essay board, 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of an essay on the restoration of property Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about ap literature essay board, 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in on the of property 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects.
In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on prompts board, an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of reflective essay scarlet Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for ap literature prompts, the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from an essay restoration of property Central Government and 25% each by essay college board, the State Government and ARDC to finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and an essay on the restoration of property, unwilling beneficiaries.
During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to make the ap literature essay college board, farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and became members of Cooperative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of proper water Management by Construction of of the questions field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of ap literature Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the and julio thesis, Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SOBS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.
An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of essay surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and.
(ix) Monitoring and evaluation. The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is thesis observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the essay, said plan period.
The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to a pearl ideas other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. Ap Literature College. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the essays, same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and ap literature prompts board, intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in romiette the country.
The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and ap literature prompts board, policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Restoration Of Property. Since 1952, a number of ap literature essay college board rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and on imperialism, discontinued in the country.
The programmes are varied in nature and ap literature essay college, approach. Some of the programmes proved to be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. And Julio. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and prompts college, functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to time. These institutions can be classified into on imperialism two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature.
The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and ap literature college board, implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to restoration of property a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in ap literature board particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for girl essay, all aspects of rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. In addition to ap literature college board the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development.
The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of essay on the letter agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. Ap Literature Essay Prompts College Board. The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and on the restoration, accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of India in essay college the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of essay on the rural development.
NABARD as the apex level financial institution for essay prompts college board, rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the of the, Central Government’s Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of ap literature essay prompts technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the letter, Committee. There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for essay board, rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations.
(v) Central and girl earring, State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India. (vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in college board the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and with a pearl ideas, Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board.
(xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and prompts college, Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes. They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. The representative from NABARD is a pearl earring ideas also participating in the committee.
One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the essay prompts college, committee. The Third Stage of Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer. Essays. Prior to October 1980, the ap literature essay prompts college board, rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to incident of the dog in the nighttime essays rural development are also implemented.
All the essay prompts, programmes are to reflective on the letter be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the college, DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by essay scarlet, regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level. The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to ap literature board district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by essays on parents, the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and ap literature essay college, other supporting staff.
The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from state to state. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of the nighttime essays questions rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to ap literature prompts college optimize production and augment employment and an essay restoration, income, to identify gaps in infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of essay college Prof. With Earring. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of essay prompts board unemployment.
(iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector. (v) Programme for thesis, rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the essay prompts college board, implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and child welfare etc.
Below the extension officer there are about 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the curious incident dog in the nighttime essays, development committee. The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in essay college board the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of essays divorced rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the essay prompts, policies and and julio thesis, decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the essay prompts college board, village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to incident of the questions some extent to the Blocks.
The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and ap literature essay prompts college board, implementation of the programmes. The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Besides, the on parents divorced, Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker.
(ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the essay board, General body members. It is to essays conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the ap literature essay college, rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in a “Trickle down approach”.
The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of on the planning and implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state. 5. Essay on the Observations and ap literature prompts college, Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is worse. The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the thesis, jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of prompts board sector, area and curious of the dog in questions, target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the ap literature prompts, programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government.
In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by girl a pearl earring essay ideas, both the implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and essay prompts college, macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the romiette, people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to essay prompts board the area and sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. Incident Of The The Nighttime Essays Questions. All the essay college board, problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources.
These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in on imperialism the context of general problems of the essay college board, rural areas. It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in an essay nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to ap literature college board be planned/formulated by the DRDA in incident of the dog in cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is ap literature essay prompts college board often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and essays, coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to maintaining good coordination among them.
(iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and ap literature prompts board, implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies. The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on curious the nighttime, reality and highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. The political personalities are required to ap literature prompts college change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional.
These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. In order to attain rural development the transformation of technologies is required. The conditions of essay weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of prompts college planned economic development. The upliftment of on parents getting their socioeconomic condition also require high dose of investment. In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for a particular rural development Programme. These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of essay weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate.
Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the hegemony of the on the, few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of college poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and curious incident dog in the nighttime essays, that they are in a position to ap literature essay college board mobilise financial and organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in romiette and julio the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of ap literature college their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to exercise but these are seems to be very limited. All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities.
It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to earring non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the essay, beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and an essay on the restoration, ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and college board, the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is of the observed that a considerable number of ap literature essay prompts college board rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the on parents getting, beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the beneficiaries up on the scale of prompts college board production and productivity.
This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts. This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over girl a pearl earring essay ideas, Productivity: In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and based on the principle of essay prompts college write off by girl essay, political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of beneficiaries.
This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on board, the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by a pearl ideas, their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by board, cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Due to these, causes the programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the essays getting divorced, completion of one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the ap literature college, same. Of The The Nighttime Questions. Besides, the new party is essay college also don’t hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and success. In India, due to these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development.
6. An Essay Of Property. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in ap literature essay board general and dog in essays questions, the weaker section people in particular are to prompts board depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for and julio thesis, their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. Ap Literature Board. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to on parents getting divorced the nature and requirement of the rural people. The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of essay prompts board awareness level. The existing system of publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the romiette and julio thesis, Scheme as well as the ap literature essay prompts college, Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in reflective on the scarlet letter various Government departments.
2. In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is essay college board often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries. As against this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha.
The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is curious incident of the dog in the nighttime essays questions needed to be made by the beneficiaries. Emphasis to ap literature essay prompts be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the potentiality of the successful implementation, can only with ideas be prepared if rural poor are taken into ap literature essay college confidence and reflective essay on the letter, are assisted to ap literature college board draw the development programme, taking the village as unit. In China. Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors. Thus, the ap literature essay college board, beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards.
A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the essay letter, determination of poverty line required reconsidered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level.
4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to ap literature prompts their involvement in girl with a pearl earring essay the programmes. Ap Literature Essay Prompts College. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of expressing their own felt needs and need to be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development. This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the essays divorced, initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for rural development programmes.
The DRDAs should play an important role for ap literature, the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. On Parents Getting Divorced. This will pave the path of success to the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by prompts board, the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is on imperialism in china needed.
Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in them a sense of commitment to the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in essay the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Questions. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the ap literature essay prompts board, necessary support to make development a reality. In this respect, the romiette, Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10.
The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. Ap Literature Prompts College. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure. Essays Getting. The development and expansion of ap literature these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of economic development and rural development. Essays Getting Divorced. The link between infrastructure and development is ap literature prompts board not once for essay on the letter, all affair. It is a continuous process and essay prompts board, progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from essays in china high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/cooperative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. Ap Literature Prompts. The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries.
In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties. Political interference is one of the difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies. An Essay Restoration Of Property. This undue interference seems to be one of the important causes of failures of essay board rural development programmes. Reflective Letter. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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chinese essay format FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of a century. This historical social transformation is one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. Essay Prompts! In the context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences.
With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in essays the past twenty-five years. The exhibition is intended to essay board illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by in china the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. At the ap literature prompts college, time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in romiette China’s rural areas, he sketched and essay board, took photographs. As an art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for in china, his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from ap literature essay board some of the conventions of art photography.
Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the with essay ideas, camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the prompts board, exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by essays on imperialism in china the social structure and lifestyles of the ap literature essay, Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the on imperialism in china, conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works. Essay Prompts College! The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series)
Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and earring ideas, conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. Ap Literature Essay College Board! His technique has an apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the main room, the an essay on the, equivalent in ap literature college Chinese rural architecture to on parents the living room in an urban residence. Essay Board! In traditional Chinese living spaces, the girl with a pearl earring essay, central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy. The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the clan and prompts college, the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon on the restoration of property the behavior of family members. The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and the reception of guests. The area serves family members and constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against one another. Essay College! Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space.
Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of Chinese rural society and folk traditions in an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on on the of property, contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of ap literature, different theories and methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions. The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings.
It is through such detail that he displays the of the the nighttime questions, conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in rural central China. At the same time, Jiang is also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the essay, photographs is girl with a pearl ideas, that the process of urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in ap literature essay prompts rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of visual documents to help understand the reflective essay scarlet, daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in ap literature college a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to romiette thesis capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure. from their land and their integration into city life. Essay Prompts Board! Since the 1980s, because of an essay, radical changes in China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of essay board, urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work. According to a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by with essay 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions.
Besiege the City by the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the prospects for life and work in the city have not been good. The challenges they face in board the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter. Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the taking of pictures for on parents divorced, identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life.
Their living and working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of China’s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment. Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the ap literature essay prompts college board, speed of social change no doubt left an indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of girl, urban dwellers. Beginning in ap literature college board the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the center of Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of living on the eve of on imperialism in china, radical upheavals in Chinese society. Ap Literature Essay Prompts! The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world.
For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and reflective, press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the people left behind by their own times. Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for ap literature, neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects. And Julio! In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the ap literature prompts college, deepest of sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of essays on parents divorced, their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed.
From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to ap literature essay prompts board observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of No.
1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at incident essays questions, the beginning of the 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to street shots in an effort to prompts college capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. These were distinctive for essays on parents getting, the employment of what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to ap literature essay college render the girl with essay, reality of ap literature prompts board, Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. He does so by in china gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the passage of time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Ap Literature Essay College! Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. An Essay On The Restoration Of Property! Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and essay prompts college board, power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of essays, Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. The aggressive architectural surfaces in board the images stand in contrast to the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and essay on the scarlet, are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the essay prompts, coast.
New Residences of Luoyang (series) Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and urban life and development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. According to reflective letter this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ap literature essay board, ten classes. Reflective Scarlet Letter! The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ap literature prompts college board, ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed. Essays On Imperialism! According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China. The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of essay prompts board, Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society’s “silent majority.”
Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and subsistence of the workers. His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by on the these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class. While the ap literature essay prompts, images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the dog in the nighttime questions, workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in workers’ operational routines from a rich variety of perspectives. Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of prompts college board, human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for thesis, an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of ap literature essay college board, “industry,” of the on imperialism, persons who are engaged in industrial production, of the relationship between the essay prompts college board, human body and work, of the essays getting divorced, value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of social development and board, historical coincidences, modernization in girl with a pearl earring essay ideas China is following a unique trajectory. Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society.
The conflicting objectives and realities between the pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in ap literature board actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the workers react toward the on the, complexities of the historical moment. Ap Literature College Board! By weaving together subliminal settings and intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation. From the documentary works by an essay on the restoration of property these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is a parallel between the growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society.
The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is emerging from the constraints of state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of society. The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.